This Week in the American Civil War: June 1-7, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

 

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday June 1, 1864

COLD HARBOR CAMPAIGN BEGINS

As Federal infantry arrived in the Cold Harbor area of Virginia near the 1862 Seven Days battlefields around Richmond, they found that the Confederates had already arrived. Confederate Major General Richard H. Anderson’s corps attacked Major General Phil Sheridan’s cavalry near Old Cold Harbor in the morning, and the two assaults were repulsed. Major General Horatio Wright’s Sixth Corps relieved Sheridan by midmorning. Major General William F. Smith’s 18th Corps was delayed and did not arrive until late afternoon. Wright and Smith pressed an assault at 6 p.m. but Confederate resistance stiffened, forcing the two Federal corps to entrench in their advanced position. Federal Major General Winfield Scott Hancock’s Second Corps was ordered to hold the south end of the line. During the night, both sides continued to entrench.

In Georgia, Federal cavalry under Major General George Stoneman captured Allatoona Pass, an all-important railroad link to Chattanooga, which enabled Major General William T. Sherman to advance his railhead closer to the fighting lines.

Thursday June 2, 1864

Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant’s plans for an attack upon Confederate General Robert E. Lee, originally set for the morning hours, was pushed back until 5 p.m. to account for troop movements, ammunition problems and fatigue issues. Sharp skirmishes erupted during the morning of a very hot day that ended with rain in the evening. The attack was postponed for a day as both armies continued to entrench and make preparations. Many of the privates fashioned crude “dog tags” during the night in case they should fall the next day.

Action flared at Acworth and Raccoon Bottom, Georgia, as Federal Major General William T. Sherman shifted his three armies northeastward towards Allatoona and the Chattanooga-Atlanta Railroad.

Friday June 3, 1864

BATTLE OF COLD HARBOR

The rain ceased and dawn approached at Cold Harbor, Virginia. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was lined up behind strong fortifications from the Chickahominy River on the south to the swamps along Totopotomoy Creek on the north. At 4:30 a.m. amid cheers and rapid musket fire, three Federal corps, led by Major Generals Winfield Scott Hancock, Horatio Wright and William F. Smith crashed headlong into two well entrenched Confederate corps led by Major General Richard H. Anderson and Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill. Further to the north, Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early’s corps withstood attacks by two Federal corps under Major Generals Ambrose Burnside and Gouverneur K. Warren. By 12:30 p.m. the assault had failed and Federal corps commanders refused to push their troops in for another attack.

The battle at Cold Harbor was a costly one for both sides. For the Confederates, General Robert E. Lee was unable to put any of his troops into reserve. If they failed to hold the line, the war in Virginia could have ended. Of the 59,000 Confederates pushed into battle, 788 were killed, 3,376 wounded and 1,123 captured or missing for an aggregate total of 5,287. Federal losses were much greater with 1,844 killed, 9,077 wounded and 1,816 missing for a total of 12,737 of 108,000 engaged.

Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant later wrote, “I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made… At Cold Harbor no advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we sustained.” 

Saturday June 4, 1864

At Cold Harbor, Virginia, the Federal Army of the Potomac and Confederate Army of Northern Virginia lay entrenched, often only yards apart. In between the lines were thousands of bodies of dead and wounded.

In a rainstorm in Georgia, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston shifted his Army of Tennessee during the night from the New Hope Church area outside of Atlanta, to the north along Lost, Pine and Brush Mountains. Again, he got in front of Federal Major General William T. Sherman before the Federals could complete their move. Fighting took place at Big Shanty and Acworth during the day.

Skirmishing took place elsewhere at Port Republic and Harrisonburg, Virginia; Panther Gap, West Virginia; Ossabaw Sound, Georgia; and at Hudson’s Crossing on the Neosho River in Indian Territory.

Sunday June 5, 1864

    Confederates under Brigadier General William E. “Grumble” Jones moved to stop Federal Major General David Hunter’s raid in the Shenandoah Valley. With about 5,600 men, Jones met Hunter’s main force of 8,500 Federals at Piedmont, seven miles southwest of Port Republic, Virginia. Charges and countercharges lasted until mid-afternoon, when Federal infantry and cavalry routed the Southern troops. Federals lost 780 men and Confederates lost around 1,600 including Jones, who was killed. About 1,000 of the Confederate casualties were soldiers who were captured.

In Georgia, Federal Major General William T. Sherman was shifting northeast towards the Chattanooga-Atlanta Railroad and Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston’s new line was on the mountains in front of Marietta. Skirmishing broke out at Acworth and Pine Mountain.

In Virginia, Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant proposed to Confederate General Robert E. Lee for a truce in order that both sides could tend to their wounded and bury their dead at Cold Harbor.

Discussion in Washington centered upon who President Abraham Lincoln would select as his running-mate. Many believed that Hannibal Hamlin would be dropped in favor of a war-minded Democrat to create a unified ticket.

Monday June 6, 1864

Federal Major General William T. Sherman continued to shift his position in Georgia to face Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston’s entrenchments near Marietta.

Federal troops under Major General David Hunter occupied Staunton, Virginia, an important operational center in the Shenandoah Valley.

Tuesday June 7, 1864

Delegates to the National Union Convention, representing most Republicans and some War Democrats, gathered in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for President of the United States. Their support for President Abraham Lincoln was almost unanimous. Open to possible question was the vice-presidential nomination. The day was devoted mainly to the usual preliminaries with the nomination scheduled for the next day.

Federal troops under Major General Samuel Davis Sturgis skirmished with Confederates at Ripley, Mississippi, as the Union expedition headed into Mississippi in search of the elusive Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of June 1-7, 1864 

Active units:

1st Battalion Minnesota Infantry – On duty at White House Landing, New Kent County, Virginia. 

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty around Dallas, Georgia during Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Pine Bluff, Arkansas until October 10, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – En route to Memphis, Tennessee for duty.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On the march to Fort Sully on the Missouri River as part of the Sully Expedition to Dakota Territory until July 1, 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Participated in the battle at Ripley, Mississippi in Sturgis’s pursuit of Forrest.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Companies E and D were on duty at Island No. 10 until June 15, 1864. The remaining companies were on duty around Columbus, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On the march to Fort Sully on the Missouri River as part of the Sully Expedition to Dakota Territory until July 1, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry – On the march to Fort Sully on the Missouri River as part of the Sully Expedition to Dakota Territory until June 28, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D moved to Fort Abercrombie. Companies A and B assigned to garrison at Fort Abercrombie.  Company C assigned to garrison at Alexandria and Pomme de Terre. Company D on patrol duty from Fort Abercrombie to Pembina.  Companies E and F on frontier duty. The battalion would remain in these duty locations for the duration of the war – until April 26, 1866.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – Moved to Rome, Georgia via Clifton, Tenn.; Huntsville and Decatur, Ala.; and Big Shanty, Ga. arriving on June 9, 1864 to join the Atlanta Campaign.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – On the march to Fort Sully on the Missouri River as part of the Sully Expedition to Dakota Territory until July 1, 1864.

1st United States Sharpshooters Company I- Now detached from the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, in camp at Stevensburg, Virginia awaiting the arrival of the 1st Battalion of Minnesota Infantry at the end of May 1864. 

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – Participated in the Battle of Cold Harbor.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.  

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Mustered out of Federal service on April 29, 1864. Inactive.

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Sultana Documentary to be filmed

A new documentary film about the SS. Sultana, which perished on the Mississippi River on April 27, 1865 killing approximately 1,800 of her 2,427 passengers when a boiler exploded, is in the works with an anticipated release of April 2015, to denote the 150th anniversary of the tragedy.

The film is being produced by Sean Astin, best known for his performances in The GooniesRudy and The Lord of the Rings Trilogy. Other credits include: NCISMemphis Belle24 and Courage Under Fire. He lent his voice over talents to the documentary WWII in HD: The Air WarAnimal PlanetsMeerkat Manor and the video game Men of Valor.

 

Artwork for the Sultana Documentary by artist James Hance

Artwork for the Sultana Documentary by artist James Hance

A native Oklahoman, Mark Marshall began his career in 1978 when he joined Lucasfilm Ltd., serving as production assistant on More American GraffitiStar Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back and Raiders of the Lost Ark, directed by Steven Spielberg. In 1984, he joined Amblin Entertainment as personal assistant to Mr. Spielberg. During that time, Marshall assisted on a varied slate of projects including Indiana Jones and the Temple of DoomThe GooniesThe Color PurpleEmpire of the Sun, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade as well as Spielberg’s television series, Amazing Stories. In 1989, Marshall joined Donner Shuler-Donner Productions as a production representative to producer/director Richard Donner on HBO’s hit series, Tales from the Crypt. During hiatus on that series, Marshall joined producer Jennie Lew Tugend as her assistant on Radio Flyer and Lethal Weapon 3. In 1992, Tugend tapped Marshall as a Producer on the Free Willy trilogy for Warner Bros.  Marshall also brought his considerable post-production experience to such films as AssassinsLightning JackStar KidMessage in a Bottle, Billy Crystal’s 61*for HBO, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone and Mary-Kate & Ashley Olsen’s big-screen debut, New York Minute. He also served as production manager on the Academy Award-nominated short film, Kangaroo Court, directed by Sean Astin.

Mike Marshall, general partner in River Rock Entertainment, LLC, has over twenty years of experience in the field of video production.In addition to owning his own companies, Mike has worked for three television stations. One station, licensed to a college in northeastern Oklahoma since 1987, continues to serve its viewing area as a full-power, UHF facility. Mike was the station’s first production manager. He’s taught video production and other mass communication subjects at two Oklahoma universities..
History is more than an avocation for Mike, it’s a true passion. He has produced over 200 hours of educational programming for broadcast and has co-produced a number of documentary projects. The Sultana represents the culmination of a lifetime working to preserve history.

Additional crew members include Leah Cevoli who appeared in HBO’s DeadwoodMark Alan Ray who holds a Bachelor’s Degree in History and a Master’s of Education with an emphasis in History; Jeff Hoopingarner is an award winning multimedia producer/director with over twenty years of experience in video and film production. Jeff served in the United States Air Force as a combat camera videographer.  Considered one of the top videographers in the military, he won many awards including 1994 military videographer of the year.  He served as an assistant editor on A&E channel documentaries and worked on a variety of industrial film and video productions; and Jim Michaels, began his career Producing the NBC series, Midnight Caller.  From 1993 to 1996, Michaels Co-Produced the ABC series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, as well as Nick’s Game, a one-hour drama pilot for CBS.  His long list of Producing distinguished credits includes Charlie Grace and Escape From Atlantis. He also Produced the CBS series, Turks and Cover Me: Based on the True Life of an FBI Family series for the USA Network. Having established a standard of excellence, networks looked to Michaels, to produce among others The Guardian pilot for CBS, the Odyssey 5 series for Showtime and Dr. Vegas for CBS.  

The group has put together a website called Sultana Documentary and launched a Kickstarter campaign that is in its final stages and needs support to reach the last $15,000 needed for production by June 5, 2014.

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This Week in the American Civil War: May 25-31, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday May 25, 1864

Federal Major General Joseph Hooker drove towards the Confederate position at New Hope Church, Georgia, but the defenders repulsed the attacks during a fierce thunderstorm. The attack not only resulted in high casualties, but slowed the momentum of Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s campaign.

Thursday May 26, 1864

As darkness fell, Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant and Major General George G. Meade began withdrawing the Army of the Potomac across the North Anna River. The army would then cross the Pamunkey River and head toward Hanovertown, Virginia, far around the right of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.

Further west, in the Shenandoah Valley, Federal Major General David Hunter headed from Strasburg and Cedar Creek toward Staunton, Virginia. Hunter had about 16,000 men and was opposed by Confederate Brigadier General William E. “Grumble” Jones 8,500 men.

As Major General William T. Sherman’s entire Federal army pushed forward slowly, skirmishing was quite heavy. By evening, the two armies were very close to each other and entrenched. The character of the Atlanta Campaign now changed from mainly a campaign of movement and occasional fighting to a war of entrenchments on both sides. The actions were known as “about Dallas” and Burned Church, Georgia, in the official records.

Friday May 27, 1864

Federal Major General Phil Sheridan’s cavalry occupied Hanovertown, Virginia, south of the Pamunkey River, with little opposition. Meanwhile, the infantry corps continued their march from the North Anna River to the Pamunkey. Fighting, mainly by cavalry, erupted at Hanover Junction, Sexton’s Station, Mount Carmel Church, Dabney’s Ferry, Hanovertown, Little River, Pole Cat Creek, and Salem Church. Learning of Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant’s advance, Confederate General Robert E. Lee began moving back on his shorter lines from his position near Hanover Junction, heading south and then eastward.

On the New Hope Church-Dallas line in Georgia, there was some shifting of positions and heavy fighting, especially near Mount Zion Church. Major General Oliver O. Howard’s Federal corps attacked at Pickett’s Mills northeast of New Hope Church and was repulsed with fairly heavy losses in the difficult and heavily wooded country. 

Saturday May 28, 1864

Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, hurrying from the North Anna River, arrived north of the Chickahominy River and Mechanicsville. then, moving southeast toward Cold Harbor, Lee again got in front of Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant’s army, which was crossing the Pamunkey River near Hanovertown. Fighting, mainly between cavalry forces, occurred at Aenon Church, Jones’s Farm, Crump’s Creek and Haw’s Shop, as well as along the Totopotomoy Creek. Although Lee was in front of Grant, both he and Confederate President Jefferson Davis had cause for concern. Davis told Lee that General P.G.T. Beauregard, south of Richmond, was strengthening his defenses but was outnumbered at least two-to-one.

In Georgia, Confederate Joseph E. Johnston, hoping to disrupt Federal plans for a shift to the left, ordered Lieutenant General William J. Hardee to make a reconnaissance in force against Federal Major General James B. McPherson near Dallas. In a sharp contest, the Confederates suffered heavily and pulled back.

In Missouri, Confederates sacked Lamar and skirmishes broke out at Warrensburg and Pleasant Hill. Action flared near Little Rock and at Washington, Arkansas, and at Pest House opposite Port Hudson, Louisiana.

Far from the scene of the American  Civil War, Maximilian of Hapsburg landed at Vera Cruz to take the throne of Mexico, backed by France’s Napoleon III and opposed by Mexican leader Benito Juarez.

Sunday May 29, 1864

    The Federal Army of the Potomac marched towards Richmond south of the Pamunkey River, meeting little opposition. But Confederate General Robert E. Lee, a bit father on, was preparing his lines.

In Georgia, there was mostly shifting of positions and sharp skirmishing. At night, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston opened up his artillery and outposts were pushed near Federal Major General James B. McPherson’s works. The lines were close everywhere and irregular fire was commonplace in the Georgia woodlands. Also commonplace was the mounting number of casualties, not part of a big battle, but the inevitable attrition of a large campaign.

Monday May 30, 1864

In Virginia, fighting broke out at Matadequin Creek, Old Church, Shady Grove, Armstrong’s Farm and at Ashland. Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant’s main force arrived along Totopotomoy Creek and faced Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s line north of the Chickahominy River. At White House, on the Pamunkey River, Federal Major General William F. Smith brought two corps of reinforcements to Grant, who was now nearly as close to Richmond as Major General George B. McClellan was in 1862 but again the Confederates barred the way. Fighting was heavy as the Federals felt out the Confederate line, determining where it lay.

In Georgia, the lines still held around New Hope Church and Dallas and the skirmishing and sharpshooting continued with action near Allatoona and Burned Church.

In South Carolina, a minor Federal bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor was opened. It lasted until June 5 and consisted of 319 rounds.

Tuesday May 31, 1864

Still determined to get around Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s right flank Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant shifted part of his lines towards Cold Harbor. However, Lee and his Confederates shifted also and were there in front of him, setting the scene for a large battle to come. In the meantime, fighting occurred at Mechump’s Creek, Shallow Creek, Turner’s Farm and Bethesda Church, Virginia. When the month of May began, Grant was north of the Rapidan River. Now he was knocking on the back-door of Richmond.

In Georgia, Federal Major General William T. Sherman had also moved several miles towards Atlanta from far northwestern Georgia, but he, too, confronted a determined and skillful foe. Federals and Confederates had each lost approximately nine thousand troops during the month of May.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of May 25-31, 1864 

Active units:

1st Battalion Minnesota Infantry – Moved to White House Landing, New Kent County, Virginia. 

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Guarded trains in the Cassville, Georgia area during Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Pine Bluff, Arkansas until October 10, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Vicksburg, Mississippi until June 4, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Fort Ridgely, Minnesota until June 5, 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – En route from St. Louis, Missouri to Memphis, Tennessee, arriving there June 1, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Companies E and D were on duty at Island No. 10 until June 15, 1864. The remaining companies were on duty around Columbus, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Ridgely until June 4, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry –On duty at Sioux City, Iowa until June 4, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D moved to Fort Abercrombie. Companies A and B assigned to garrison at Fort Abercrombie.  Company C assigned to garrison at Alexandria and Pomme de Terre. Company D on patrol duty from Fort Abercrombie to Pembina.  Companies E and F on frontier duty. The battalion would remain in these duty locations for the duration of the war – until April 26, 1866.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – Moved to Rome, Georgia via Clifton, Tenn.; untsvilleHuntsville and Decatur, Ala.; and Big Shanty, Ga. arriving on June 9, 1864 to join the Atlanta Campaign.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

1st United States Sharpshooters Company I- Now detached from the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, in camp at Stevensburg, Virginia awaiting the arrival of the 1st Battalion of Minnesota Infantry at the end of May 1864. 

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – On line at the Pamunkey River and at Totopotomy Creek during Grant’s Overland Campaign.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.  

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Mustered out of Federal service on April 29, 1864. Inactive.

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This Week in the American Civil War: May 18-24, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

 

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday May 18, 1864

The days of comparative quiet around Spotsylvania, Virginia ended when two Federal corps led a dawn assault on Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s left flank, dug in new entrenchments. The Federals charged several times without success. Major General George G. Meade, Army of the Potomac commander, ordered the drive abandoned. After further shifts by the Federals to probe the lines, Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant decided that the enemy was too strong to be defeated in his present position, and once more started moving to his own left to attempt to get around Lee’s right flank.

Fighting occurred at Fosters’s Plantation and near City Point (present day Hopewell), Virginia as Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard fended off attacks by Major General Benjamin Butler’s Army of the James from their base of operations at Bermuda Hundred landing.

In Alabama, skirmishing broke out at Fletcher’s Ferry and in Pike County, Kentucky along the Wolf River.

Thursday May 19, 1864

For perhaps the first time since the war began, politics and the war was eclipsed by one singular event outside of those topics – the sixty-year-old classic American writer, Nathaniel Hawthorne, died in his sleep in Plymouth, New Hampshire.

Confederate General Robert E. Lee ordered his left line at Spotsylvania, Virginia, to make a demonstration to determine whether Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant was moving to the Confederate right. Severe fighting around Spotsylvania erupted proved that Lee was correct. The action continued until late in the evening when the Confederates pulled back. Grant was now swinging to the south and east towards the Po River.

During the series of battles around Spotsylvania Court House, Federal casualties are estimated at 17,500 out of 110,000 men engaged. The Confederates put approximately 50,000 into action but total losses are not reliably recorded.

From his position near Cassville, Georgia, General Joseph E. Johnston ordered an attack on the separated units of Major General William T. Sherman’s Federal army. By the evening, however, after Johnston was forced to take up a defensive position and two of his three corps commanders felt that the position could not be held, the general reluctantly decided to retreat through Cartersville to the Etowah River.

Friday May 20, 1864

Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston continued to cross the Etowah River and made a strong defensive position at Allatoona Pass, Georgia, with Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s forces in pursuit.

In Virginia, Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant gave Army of the Potomac commander, Major General George G. Meade, orders to move by its left and cross the Mattapony River. Major General Winfield Scott Hancock’s Second Corps led the way, heading to Guiney’s Station. However, Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia prepared to pull his army out to the south to block Grant’s movement once more.

President Abraham Lincoln ordered that no person engaged in trade in accordance with the treasury regulations should be hindered or delayed by the Army or Navy. It was part of the continuing difficulties regarding trade in occupied territory or with the enemy. 

Saturday May 21, 1864

Fighting broke out at Guiney’s Station and at Stanard’s Mill, Virginia, as Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant shifted his army east and south and away from Spotsylvania Court House.

Federal Major General David Hunter replaced Major General Franz Sigel in the Department of West Virginia, following Sigel’s lackluster performance in the Shenandoah Valley area.

In Georgia, Federal Major General William T. Sherman regrouped his forces, took the day to repair bridges and giving his troops a brief rest in the Cassville-Kingston-Cartersville area, while Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston dug in around Allatoona Pass.

Sunday May 22, 1864

    Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant’s Army of the Potomac was moving south from Guiney’s Station, Virginia, towards the North Anna River. Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia was moving south a few miles to the west. In the morning, two Confederate corps beat Grant into position at Hanover Junction.

Major General William T. Sherman was ready to move his Federal army again and by the evening, the cavalry engaged Confederates at Cassville, Georgia. Meanwhile, Sherman issued orders for the bulk of his army to by-pass the Allatoona area and head towards Dallas, Georgia.

U.S.S. Stingaree was taken by Confederates off the coast near Brazos, Texas, but was then recaptured by the Federals.

Monday May 23, 1864

Late in the afternoon, Federal Major General Gouverneur K. Warren’s Fifth Corps crossed the North Anna River and was hit by Confederate Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill’s corps near Jericho Mills, Virginia around 6 p.m. With the Army of the Potomac split between the two banks of the river, Confederate General Robert E. Lee had an opportunity to attack the divided army but failed to take advantage of the opportunity, partially because of his own illness, to go along with other factors.

Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s entire army headed towards Dallas, Georgia from the Cassville area in an attempt to turn Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston’s left flank. Only minor action was recorded at Stilesborough.

In Florida, Confederates captured the U.S.S. Columbine.

Tuesday May 24, 1864

Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant continued to move the Army of the Potomac, now divided into three parts, across the North Anna River in Virginia. A brief fight broke out at Ox Ford, but Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s troops held the strong position.

Major General William T. Sherman pressed on from the Etowah River toward Dallas, Georgia. Fighting broke out at Cass Station, Cassville, Burnt Hickory and near Dallas. Much of the action involved Confederate cavalry raids upon the Federal wagons in Sherman’s rear. Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston, at Allatoona, realized Sherman’s intent and ordered his army to move towards Dallas via New Hope, to try to get in front of Sherman once again. Sherman, now quite a ways from his vital railroad supply line, was closer than ever to Atlanta. Meanwhile, Johnston’s communication lines were also contracting, making it a perilous situation for both armies.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of May 18-24, 1864 

Active units:

1st Battalion Minnesota Infantry – Created from the remnants of the old 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, the 1st Battalion Minnesota Infantry, under Colonel Mark W. Downie, left Fort Snelling for Washington, D.C. on May 16. They arrived in Washington on May 30, 1864. 

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Guarded trains in the Cassville, Georgia area during Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Pine Bluff, Arkansas until October 10, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Vicksburg, Mississippi until June 4, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Left the various Minnesota outposts and concentrated at Paynesville, Minnesota on May 24, 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Left their outposts at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville and Franklin, Missouri and consolidated at St. Louis, remaining there until May 29, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Companies E and D were on duty at Island No. 10 until June 15, 1864. The remaining companies were on duty around Columbus, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling and at frontier posts throughout Minnesota until May 24, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry –On duty at Sioux City, Iowa until June 4, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D moved to Fort Abercrombie. Companies A and B assigned to garrison at Fort Abercrombie.  Company C assigned to garrison at Alexandria and Pomme de Terre. Company D on patrol duty from Fort Abercrombie to Pembina.  Companies E and F on frontier duty. The battalion would remain in these duty locations for the duration of the war – until April 26, 1866.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – Moved to Rome, Georgia via Clifton, Tenn.; Huntsville and Decatur, Ala.; and Big Shanty, Ga. arriving on June 9, 1864 to join the Atlanta Campaign.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

1st United States Sharpshooters Company I- Now detached from the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, in camp at Stevensburg, Virginia awaiting the arrival of the 1st Battalion of Minnesota Infantry at the end of May 1864. 

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – Participated in the assaults at Harris Farm, Fredericksburg Road and the North Anna Crossing during Grant’s Overland Campaign.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.  

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Mustered out of Federal service on April 29, 1864. Inactive. 

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This Week in the American Civil War: May 11-17, 1864

Information courtesy of the

MN150Logo_OL_FNLMinnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday May 11, 1864

BATTLE OF YELLOW TAVERN

Six miles north of Richmond at a place called Yellow Tavern, Confederate Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart and his cavalry faced Federal Major General Philip Sheridan’s cavalry force. In a sharp, helter-skelter encounter, Stuart fell from his horse and was mortally wounded. Sheridan’s men drove back Stuart’s troops but the engagement gave the Confederates time to strengthen the defenses of Richmond.

Only a light reconnaissance by Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant by men of Major General Ambrose Burnside’s corps marked the progress in the Wilderness. However, Grant learned about a bulge in the Confederate center and was determined to attack it.

At the Louisiana Constitutional Convention in New Orleans, the reconstructed Federal-leaning state government adopted an ordinance of emancipation without compensation.

Thursday May 12, 1864

J.E.B. STUART DIES

One day after falling wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern, Confederate Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart died of his wounds. He passed away one year and two days after the loss of iconic Confederate Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson.

A fierce day of fighting at Spotsylvania reopened at 4:30 a.m. straight at the salient of the Confederate lines, by Major General Winfield Scott Hancock’s Second Corps. Approximately four thousand prisoners, including two generals, artillery, small arms and stands of colors were taken from Confederate Lieutenant General Richard Ewell’s corps. All told, 24 Federal brigades attacked only a few hundred yards of entrenchments. For the most part, the main Confederate line held, but eventually they were withdrawn to a new line as their salient was eliminated. It was one of the bloodiest days of the war. Federal casualties are estimated at 6,800 while the Confederates are believed to have lost around 5,000 men in dead and wounded.

In Georgia, Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s army, except for one corps, had passed through Snake Creek Gap and was near Resaca by day’s end.

Friday May 13, 1864

Around Resaca, Georgia, Lieutenant General Joseph E. Johnston took up new positions, joined by Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk’s reinforcements, and faced the advance of Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s army. Fighting broke out at Tilton, Resaca and near Dalton during the course of the realignment.

In Virginia, Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant, having failed to break Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s line at Spotsylvania, continued to move to the south and east. Federal Major General Philip Sheridan’s cavalry left the Richmond area and headed for the James River at Haxall’s Landing.

At Drewry’s Bluff, Federal Major General Benjamin Butler’s troops were struggling to get into position for an attack, thereby giving General P.G.T. Beauregard’s Confederates enough time to arrange their thin line of defenders.

On the Red River, the Federal gunboats and Federal Major General Nathaniel P. Banks’s infantry continued their retreat. The Federal Spring operation across the Mississippi River had been a total failure. 

Saturday May 14, 1864

Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s troops still intended to assault Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston’s lines at Resaca, Georgia, but delays and extensive deployments held down the attack.

In Virginia, Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant continued to shift his troops to the left, as both armies sought to recover from the pounding they had each received at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania. The hard march and heavy rain caused the Federal attack to be called off.

Sunday May 15, 1864

    BATTLE OF NEW MARKET

    Threatened in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley from the north by Federal Major General Franz Sigel’s advance, Confederate Major General John C. Breckinridge had gathered everybody he could find, including 247 students from the Virginia Military Academy. The Federal line was across the Valley Pike and towards the north fork of the Shenandoah River. Breckinridge attacked and drove Sigel back by late morning before retreating to Strasburg. The Federal’s suffered 93 killed, 482 wounded and 256 missing for 831 casualties out of 5,500 troops engaged. The Confederates lost 42 killed, 522 wounded and 13 missing for 577 out of approximately 5,000. Of the VMI cadets, 10 were killed and 47 wounded. The courage of the cadets at the Battle of New Market made them a legend, even though they were a small part of the victorious Confederate force.

In front of Resaca, Georgia, fighting broke out between Confederate Lieutenant General John Bell Hood’s corps and Federal Major General Joseph Hooker’s corps. Fighting raged all along the line and at Lay’s Ferry on the Oostenaula River, south of Resaca. Realizing that his forces were in danger of being flanked, Lieutenant General Joseph E. Johnston withdrew from Resaca during the night.

The only fighting in the Spotsylvania, Virginia area of operations was a skirmish at Branch Church.

Monday May 16, 1864

BATTLE OF DREWRY’S BLUFF

At Drewry’s Bluff and the Fort Darling area on the James River, Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard’s ten brigades attacked in the dense fog of early morning. The Federal right under Major General William French Smith was badly hurt, but Union troops held the center. Heavy fighting on the Federal army under Major General Quincy A. Gillmore was indecisive, but Smith and Major General Benjamin Butler through that they had to withdraw the Union forces due to the danger on the right. Ineptness in top Union command was never more evident than in this campaign. Drewry’s Bluff or Fort Darling could have been disastrous. Over 16,000 Federals faced 18,000 Confederates. There were 390 Union soldiers killed, 2,380 wounded and 1,390 missing for a total of 4,160 lost. Confederates had 355 killed, 1,941 wounded and 210 missing for an aggregate loss of 2,506.

Tuesday May 17, 1864

In Georgia, skirmishing broke out at Adairsville and Rome while the lines continued to shift towards Atlanta.

The Spotsylvania area of Virginia remained relatively quiet, except for the shifting of certain positions, while Federal Major General Benjamin Butler’s Army of the James withdrew completely from the Drewry’s Bluff area. Butler’s army was around Bermuda Hundred, again prevented from threatening Petersburg by geography, Beauregard’s army, and his own ineffectiveness.

The United States Congress passed measures that set up the postal money order system.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of May 11-17, 1864 

Active units:

1st Battalion Minnesota Infantry – Created from the remnants of the old 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, the 1st Battalion Minnesota Infantry, under Colonel Mark W. Downie, left Fort Snelling for Washington, D.C. on May 16. They arrived in Washington on May 30, 1864. 

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Participated in the Battle of Resaca as part of Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Pine Bluff, Arkansas until October 10, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Mansura, Louisiana until May 18, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On frontier duty at various points in Minnesota: Anoka, Princeton, Monticello, Kingston, Manannah, Paynesville, Fort Ripley, Sauk Center, Pomme de Terre, Alexandria and Fort Abercrombie until May 24, 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Left their outposts at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville and Franklin, Missouri and consolidated at St. Louis, remaining there until May 29, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Companies E and D were on duty at Island No. 10 until June 15, 1864. The remaining companies were on duty around Columbus, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling and at frontier posts throughout Minnesota until May 24, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry – Left Fort Snelling May 2 and was on duty at Sioux City, Iowa until June 4, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D moved to Fort Abercrombie. Companies A and B assigned to garrison at Fort Abercrombie.  Company C assigned to garrison at Alexandria and Pomme de Terre. Company D on patrol duty from Fort Abercrombie to Pembina.  Companies E and F on frontier duty. The battalion would remain in these duty locations for the duration of the war – until April 26, 1866.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – Moved to Rome, Georgia via Clifton, Tenn.; untsvilleHuntsville and Decatur, Ala.; and Big Shanty, Ga. arriving on June 9, 1864 to join the Atlanta Campaign.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

1st United States Sharpshooters Company I- Now detached from the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, in camp at Stevensburg, Virginia awaiting the arrival of the 1st Battalion of Minnesota Infantry at the end of May 1864. 

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – Participated in the assault at the Confederate salient during Grant’s Overland Campaign.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.  

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Mustered out of Federal service on April 29, 1864. Inactive.

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This Week in the American Civil War: May 4-10, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

 

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday May 4, 1864

Soon after midnight, the Federal Army of the Potomac moved out from its position north of the Rapidan River in Virginia to start upon the memorable Overland Campaign. It was the beginning of the big Federal push in Virginia that culminated in the siege of Petersburg and finally to the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s forces at Appomattox Courthouse eleven months later. By late in the day, Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant had 122,000 Federal troops present for duty, with the Second Corps, Fifth Corps and Sixth Corps across the river via Germanna and Culpeper Mine fords, with the Ninth Corps coming up. Grant moved quickly around Lee’s right flank where his troops were met by 66,000 Confederates rushed up from the Orange Court House-Gordonville area to meet them.

Federal Major General William T. Sherman prepared to put his 98,000-strong army into motion from the Chattanooga, Tennessee area towards Atlanta.

Thursday May 5, 1864

BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS BEGINS

In Virginia’s wilderness, the Federal Fifth Corps faced the Confederate Second Corps on the Orange Turnpike. The first great battle of 1864 commenced. The Federal Sixth Corps joined in the effort but was driven back. By late morning, the two corps were in the throes of full-scale combat. In a separate afternoon engagement, the Federal Second Corps, under Major General Winfield Scott Hancock fought A.P. Hill’s Confederates who came in from the Orange Plank Road. Desperate but indecisive fighting proved to the Federals that the enemy opposed them in force and to the Confederates that they had to attack Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant’s full army. Both armies entrenched east of the Germanna Plank Road during the night.

Confederate President Jefferson Davis informed General Robert E. Lee of Federal Major General Benjamin F. Butler’s landings on the James River and it appeared that the two major drives were heading towards the capital in Richmond.

Friday May 6, 1864

BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS CONTINUES

The entrenched armies of Grant and Lee awaited each other in the dawn of the Wilderness. On the Federal right along the Orange Turnpike, two Federal corps drove westward early in the morning, while Major General Winfield Scott Hancock’s Second Corps inched ahead on the Orange Plank Road. For most of the morning the firing rolled on with no great advantage by either side. Toward noon, Confederate Lieutenant General James Longstreet’s corps struck the Federal line on its left flank and rear. Hancock’s men reeled back and more Confederates drove in.

In late afternoon another Confederate attack by Longstreet’s men was halted at the Union breastworks while Major General Philip Sheridan’s Federal cavalry opposed Major General J.E.B. Stuart’s men near Todd’s Tavern. Towards sunset, Major General John B. Gordon’s brigade swept the Federal right flank, proceeding rapidly and successfully until darkness.

The casualties were staggering. Of 122,000 Federals engaged, 2,246 were killed; 12,037 wounded and 3,383 missing for a total of 17,666. The Confederates fared no better. They engaged 66,000 and lost approximately 7,500. 

Saturday May 7, 1864

SHERMAN BEGINS MARCH ON ATLANTA

In Virginia, the Army of the Potomac and Army of Northern Virginia paused in the Wilderness, but Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant had instructed Major General William T. Sherman to move against Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and head into the interior of Georgia, who was soundly entrenched at Dalton. Sherman’s force of nearly 100,000 men was divided into three armies – Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Ohio. To oppose the Federals were nearly 60,000 Confederates in their defensive positions.

At a concert by the U.S. Marine Corps band in Washington, D.C., President Abraham Lincoln declined to make a speech but instead proposed three cheers for Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant “and all the armies under his command.”

Sunday May 8, 1864

     SPOTSYLVANIA COURT HOUSE BEGINS

Throughout the night, men had marched in Virginia’s Wilderness. When Major General Gouverneur K. Warren’s Fifth Corps neared Spotsylvania Court House, in what he thought was Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s right flank, they found that Confederate Major General Richard Heron Anderson’s troops got there first. Fighting revealed the new line. Both sides received reinforcements and by late afternoon, the Federals assaulted the entrenched Confederate lines. The attack failed and during the night both sides established new lines.  The various fights of the day went by the names of Todd’s Tavern, Corbin’s Bridge, Alsop’s Farm and Laurel Hill. On the south side of the James River, Federal cavalry skirmished at Jarratt’s Station and at White’s Bridge.

Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s army in Georgia continued its movement with demonstrations against Rocky Face Ridge and fighting at Buzzard Roost and Dug Gap.

A disturbed President Abraham Lincoln awaited the news in Washington, D.C.

Monday May 9, 1864

No heavy fighting occurred at Spotsylvania Court House but there was plenty of skirmishing, sharpshooting and the continued reinforcement of the lines. In the morning, Federal Major General John Sedgwick was killed. Brigadier General Horatio G. Wright assumed command of the Sixth Corps as Sedgwick’s replacement. Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s forces were entrenched in the Wilderness in an irregular position somewhat resembling a horseshoe.

Federal troops in Georgia pressed hard against the Confederate positions near Dalton, Buzzard Roost and Rocky Face Gap, testing the Confederate defenses.

Federal Major General Benjamin F. Butler ordered his whole army out against the Richmond-Petersburg lines of communications south of the James River. The advance moved slowly despite little opposition. Fighting was recorded at Fort Clifton, Ware Bottom Church, Brander’s Bridge and Arrowfield Church. Then confusion set in. Butler ordered the army back to its original lines the next morning.

Tuesday May 10, 1864

BATTLE OF THE MULESHOE

Three corps from the Army of the Potomac attacked Confederate Major General Richard Heron Anderson’s corps northwest of Spotsylvania late in the afternoon and early evening. Assaulting the entrenched Confederates twice, the Federals were thrown back, even though some reached the parapets. At the salient in the center of the Confederate line, Emory Upton’s division of Brigadier General Horatio Wright’s corps struck at 6 p.m. and breached the Confederate lines, but were repelled when the position was reinforced. The first major day of the Spotsylvania battle ended in the repulse of repeated Union assaults after making small dents in the Confederate lines.

In Georgia, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston learned of Federal efforts to turn his left flank at Resaca and Snake Creek Gap. Demonstrations and skirmishes continued. Major General William T. Sherman now decided to swing his entire army by the right flank through Snake Creek Gap.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of May 4-10, 1864 

Active units:

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Participated in the battles at Tunnel Hill and Rocky Face Ridge as part of Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Pine Bluff, Arkansas until October 10, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Alexandria, Louisiana until May 13, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On frontier duty at various points in Minnesota: Anoka, Princeton, Monticello, Kingston, Manannah, Paynesville, Fort Ripley, Sauk Center, Pomme de Terre, Alexandria and Fort Abercrombie until May 24, 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Stationed at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville and Franklin with headquarters in Jefferson City until May 15, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Companies E and D were on duty at Island No. 10 until June 15, 1864. The remaining companies were on duty around Columbus, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling and at frontier posts throughout Minnesota until May 24, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry – Left Fort Snelling May 2 and was on duty at Sioux City, Iowa until June 4, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D moved to Fort Abercrombie. Companies A and B assigned to garrison at Fort Abercrombie.  Company C assigned to garrison at Alexandria and Pomme de Terre. Company D on patrol duty from Fort Abercrombie to Pembina.  Companies E and F on frontier duty. The battalion would remain in these duty locations for the duration of the war – until April 26, 1866.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – Moved to Rome, Georgia via Clifton, Tenn.; untsvilleHuntsville and Decatur, Ala.; and Big Shanty, Ga. arriving on June 9, 1864 to join the Atlanta Campaign.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – Participated in the battles of the Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Po River and Spotsylvania Court House during Grant’s Overland Campaign.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.  

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Mustered out of Federal service on April 29, 1864. Inactive.

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This Week in the American Civil War: April 27 – May 3, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

 

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday April 27, 1864

Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Jacob Thompson and C.C. Clay Jr., to Canada as special commissioners to see if Canada would assist in brokering a peace between the Confederate States of America and the United States government.

The Maryland Constitutional Convention met at Annapolis for their first session. The Convention would last until September 6th.

Skirmishing occurred at Decatur, Alabama; Taylor’s Ridge near Ringgold, Georgia; Troublesome Creek, Kentucky; Masonborough Inlet, North Carolina and Dayton, Missouri.

Thursday April 28, 1864

Fighting occurred at Princeton, Arkansas; Johnson County, Missouri; and at the Big Bend of the Eel River, California. A minor bombardment began at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, in which the Federal launched 510 rounds against the fort over the next week.

Friday April 29, 1864

More skirmishing broke out on numerous fronts including Grand Ecore, Louisiana; Sni Hills, Missouri and in Berry County, Tennessee.

The U.S. Congress passed a joint resolution that raised all duties 50 percent for sixty days. The provision was later extended until July 1st. 

Saturday April 30, 1864

Joe Davis, the five-year-old son of Confederate President Jefferson Davis, fell off the high veranda of the Confederate White House in Richmond, Virginia, killing him.

Three blockade-runners escaped from Galveston, Texas, under the cover of night and rain.

Fighting occurred at Whitmore’s Mill and Jenkin’s Ferry, Arkansas; and at Decatur, Alabama as the month closed out.

Sunday May 1, 1864

     Confederates captured the U.S. transport Emma at David’s Ferry while skirmishing broke out at Clinton, Ashton and Berwick, all in Louisiana.

In Arkansas, skirmishes occurred at Pine Bluff and Lee’s Creek.

At Stone Church, Georgia, near Chattanooga, a skirmish occurred ahead of the increase in scouting, culminating in Federal Major General William T. Sherman’s move against Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston.

Brigadier General John P. Hatch assumed command of the Federal Department of the South, relieving Major General Quincy A. Gillmore.

Monday May 2, 1864

Skirmishing continued along the Red River as Confederates harassed Federals at Wells’s Plantation, Wilson’s Landing and Bayou Pierre, Louisiana.

Other skirmishes occurred at Kneeland’s Prairie, California; Bolivar, Tennessee; Bee Creek, Missouri; and at Tunnel Hill and Ringgold Gap, Georgia, the outposts of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and Federal Major General William T. Sherman.

Confederate President Jefferson Davis delivered an address before the first session of the Second Confederate Congress where he admitted that he saw no hope for foreign recognition, while remaining optimistic about military matters.

Tuesday May 3, 1864

Federal Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant dispatched orders through Major General George G. Meade that the Army of the Potomac was to move across the Rapidan River in Virginia the next morning, march around the right flank of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia and head towards Richmond once again.

The Federal column of Major General Frederick Steele arrived back in Little Rock, Arkansas concluding the Camden Expedition.

Along Chickamauga Creek, Catoosa Springs and at Red Clay, the Georgia Campaign became more lively as the skirmishing increased.

The Federal Cabinet and President Abraham Lincoln discussed the alleged atrocities committed by Confederates earlier in the month at Fort Pillow, Tennessee.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of April 27 – May 3, 1864 

Active units:

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Mustered out of Federal service on April 29, 1864.

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On the march in the Ringgold Gap and Tunnel Hill area of Georgia as part of the Atlanta Campaign.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Pine Bluff, Arkansas until October 10, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Alexandria, Louisiana until May 13, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On frontier duty at various points in Minnesota: Anoka, Princeton, Monticello, Kingston, Manannah, Paynesville, Fort Ripley, Sauk Center, Pomme de Terre, Alexandria and Fort Abercrombie until May 24, 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Stationed at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville and Franklin with headquarters in Jefferson City until May 15, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Companies E and D were on duty at Island No. 10 until June 15, 1864. The remaining companies were on duty around Columbus, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling and at frontier posts throughout Minnesota until May 24, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry – Left Fort Snelling May 2 and was on duty at Sioux City, Iowa until June 4, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D on frontier duty in Pembina until May 5, 1864.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – Moved to Rome, Georgia via Clifton, Tenn.; untsvilleHuntsville and Decatur, Ala.; and Big Shanty, Ga. arriving on June 9, 1864 to join the Atlanta Campaign.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – On duty around the Rapidan River, Virginia until May 4, 1864.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive. 

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This Week in the American Civil War: April 20-26, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday April 20, 1864

Confederate troops under Brigadier General R.F. Hoke, aided by the C.S.S. Albemarle, captured Plymouth, North Carolina. The federals lost about 2,800 men and a large quantity of supplies. It was the first major Confederate victory in the area for a long time and brought hope to the defenders of the Atlantic coast.

Major General Samuel Jones succeeded General P.G.T. Beauregard in command of the Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Beauregard moved to the heavily threatened post of southern Virginia and northern North Carolina.

President Abraham Lincoln ordered death sentences that were exacted by court-martial to be commuted to imprisonment on Dry Tortugas of Key West, Florida. The President also conferred with Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant, who was completing plans for a spring offensive in Virginia.

Thursday April 21, 1864

Federal Major General Nathaniel Banks harassed troops were in the process of withdrawing from Grand Ecore to Alexandria, Louisiana, as the Red River Campaign came to a close. Confederate troops pursued Banks with hit-and-run attacks but mounted no offensive.

President Abraham Lincoln conferred with governors from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, and also reviewed seventy-two court-martial cases.

Friday April 22, 1864

Confederate harassment on the Red River in Louisiana continued with attacks on transports and skirmishing near Cloutierville, Louisiana. Other fighting included a skirmish on Duck River, Tennessee and one at Cotton Plant, Arkansas.

The motto “In God We Trust” was first stamped upon coins under an act of the United States Congress. 

Saturday April 23, 1864

Confederates pressured the Federal column in Arkansas, plaguing the Camden Expedition at Camden and Swan Lake. In the Red River Campaign, a heavy engagement occurred at Monett’s Ferry, Louisiana. Fighting  elsewhere included skirmishes at Hunter’s Mill, Virginia; Independence, Missouri; and a Confederate attack at Nickajack Trace, Georgia.

Sunday April 24, 1864

     The “small war” continued with still more skirmishing near Camden, Arkansas; Decatur, Alabama; near Middletown, Virginia; and at Pineville, Louisiana.

Monday April 25, 1864

In Arkansas, the fighting continued with action at Marks’s Mills and in Moro Bottom. Troops skirmished at Cotile Landing, Louisiana on the Red River, as Federals began arriving at Alexandria in their retreat. Most of the gunboats were already near Alexandria.

Confederate Major General Robert Ransom was assigned to command the Department of Richmond, Virginia.

Tuesday April 26, 1864

Federal troops began to evacuate Washington, North Carolina, following the fall of Plymouth.

The rapidly falling water in the Red River trapped the Union gunboat fleet above the rapids. Those vessels still above Alexandria suffered considerable damage in a running engagement with onshore Confederates.

Major General Frederick Steele’s Federal column in Arkansas began its retreat from Camden after failing to join up with Major General Nathaniel P. Banks’s force on the Red River.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of April 20-26, 1864 

Active units:

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Fort Snelling prior to mustering out of Federal service on April 29, 1864.

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Ringgold, Georgia until April 29, 1864.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On garrison duty in Little Rock, Arkansas until April 28, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Alexandria, Louisiana until May 13, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On frontier duty at various points in Minnesota: Anoka, Princeton, Monticello, Kingston, Manannah, Paynesville, Fort Ripley, Sauk Center, Pomme de Terre, Alexandria and Fort Abercrombie until May 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Stationed at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville and Franklin with headquarters in Jefferson City until May 15, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Moved to Columbus, Kentucky for duty until April 27, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling and at frontier posts throughout Minnesota until May 24, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling until May 1, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D on frontier duty in Pembina until May 5, 1864.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – On duty in Cairo, Illinois until April 28, 1864.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – On duty around the Rapidan River, Virginia until May 4, 1864.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.  

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This Week in the American Civil War: April 13-19, 1864

MN150Logo_OL_FNLInformation courtesy of the

Minnesota Civil War Commemoration Task Force

(www.mncivilwar150.com and “Minnesota Civil War 150” on Facebook)

 

Major Highlights for the Week

Wednesday April 13, 1864

Admiral David Dixon Porter, with his Federal gunboats, reached Grand Ecore, Louisiana, on the Red River, despite the rapidly falling water level and continued enemy harassment. Major General Nathaniel P. Banks’s Federal retreat continued with no hope of renewing the campaign.

In Arkansas, skirmishing broke out at and near Richland Creek, and on the Spring River near Smithville.

Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s men skirmished again at Columbus, Kentucky, after yesterday’s Fort Pillow Massacre.

Thursday April 14, 1864

Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry continued operations in the Ohio River valley, skirmishing again at Paducah, Kentucky. Small Union gunboats help repulse the attack.

Skirmishing also occurred at Bayou Saline, Dutch Mills and White Oak Creek in Arkansas; Taylor’s Ridge, Georgia; and near Booneville, Kentucky.

In Washington, D.C., President Abraham Lincoln reviewed sixty-seven courts-martial cases and issued several pardons.

Friday April 15, 1864

On the Red River, the U.S.S. Eastport struck a torpedo or mine and was severely damaged.

At Knoxville, Tennessee, Governor Andrew Johnson vociferously supported emancipation at a large pro-Union meeting.

Skirmishing occurred near Camden and Roseville, Arkansas; near Presidio del Norte, New Mexico Territory; at Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Greeneville, Tennessee and at Bristoe Station and Milford, Virginia. 

Saturday April 16, 1864

A report on U.S. prisoners since the beginning of the war showed that the Federals had captured 146,634 Confederates.

The U.S. transport vessel General Hunter was destroyed by a torpedo in St. John’s River, Florida.

Skirmishing occurred at Camden and Liberty Post Office, Arkansas; on the Osage branch of King’s River in Arkansas; Rheatown, Tennessee; Salyersville, Kentucky and at Catlett’s Station, Virginia.

Sunday April 17, 1864

     Lieutenant General Ulysses Grant ordered that no further exchanges of prisoners should be made until the Confederates balanced Federal releases. He also pronounced that “no distinction whatever will be made in the exchange between white and colored prisoners.” The move injured the South, with its shortage of manpower, far more than the North, but Grant received criticism from both sides for his actions.

Confederate land forces, soon to be joined by the C.S.S. Albemarle, a Confederate ram vessel, began an attack on Plymouth, North Carolina. The Confederates were under Brigadier General Robert Frederick Hoke.

Skirmishing occurred at Beaver Creek, North Carolina; Ellis’s Ford, Virginia; Holly Springs, Mississippi; Limestone Valley and at Red Mount in Arkansas.

Monday April 18, 1864

BATTLE OF POISON SPRINGS, ARKANSAS

Confederate attacks continued at Plymouth, North Carolina. Other action included skirmishing near Decatur, Alabama and Citrus Point, Virginia.

At Poison Springs, Arkansas, Major General Sterling Price’s Confederates, under direct command of Brigadier General John S. Marmaduke, including the 1st and 2nd Choctaw Regiments, hit the Federals and a foraging train. After a heavy engagement, the Federals withdrew, abandoning 198 wagons. However, Marmaduke’s men were accused of murdering African-American soldiers of the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry. Marmaduke and other white officers claimed that the accusations of illegal killings were overblown, and blamed any murders that might have happened on the Choctaw troops who, in the words of one Confederate soldier, admitted that they did “kill and scalp” some of the black troops. Marmaduke was hailed in the Confederate press for what was publicized as a significant Southern victory.

Tuesday April 19, 1864

The C.S.S. Albemarle joined in the Confederate attack on Plymouth, North Carolina, by ramming and sinking the U.S.S. Smithfield, damaging another wooden gunboat and driving off others. Confederate troops had surrounded the town and believed that surrender was near.

In other fighting, skirmishes occurred at Leesburg, Virginia; Marling’s Bottom, West Virginia; King’s River, Arkansas; Charleston, Missouri; Waterhouse’s Mill and Boiling Springs, Tennessee.

Confederate troops carried out operations against pro-unionists in Marion County, Alabama.

An enabling act to permit Nebraska Territory to join the Union was approved after passage by the U.S. Congress.

Where Minnesota Regiments were the week of April 13-19, 1864 

Active units:

1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Fort Snelling prior to mustering out of Federal service on April 29, 1864.

2nd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Ringgold, Georgia until April 29, 1864.

3rd Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On garrison duty in Little Rock, Arkansas until April 28, 1864.

4th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Huntsville, Alabama until June 22, 1864.

5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at Alexandria, Louisiana until May 13, 1864.

6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty at various Minnesota outposts for garrison duty until June 9, 1864.

7th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On duty in Paducah, Kentucky until June 19, 1864.

8th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On frontier duty at various points in Minnesota: Anoka, Princeton, Monticello, Kingston, Manannah, Paynesville, Fort Ripley, Sauk Center, Pomme de Terre, Alexandria and Fort Abercrombie until May 1864.

9th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – Stationed at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville and Franklin with headquarters in Jefferson City until May 15, 1864.

10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry – On garrison and provost duty at Benton Barracks, Missouri until April 21, 1864.

2nd Regiment Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling and at frontier posts throughout Minnesota until May 24, 1864.

Brackett’s Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry – On duty at Fort Snelling until May 1, 1864.

Hatch’s Independent Battalion of Cavalry – Companies A, B, C and D on frontier duty in Pembina until May 5, 1864.

1st Minnesota Light Artillery Battery – On duty in Cairo, Illinois until April 28, 1864.

2nd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Veterans were on furlough through June 5, 1864. Non-veterans attached to Battery I, 2nd Illinois Light Artillery and moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where they escorted cattle and horses to the army in the field until July 14, 1864.

3rd Independent Battery Minnesota Light Artillery – Various sections of the battery were stationed at Fort Snelling, Fort Ridgely, Fort Ripley and Pembina until June 5, 1864.

2nd United States Sharpshooters, Company A – On duty around the Rapidan River, Virginia until May 4, 1864.

Inactive units: 

1st Regiment Minnesota Cavalry “Mounted Rangers” – Formally mustered out of service on December 7, 1863. Inactive.

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Biography: Major General Thomas Green, CSA (1814-1864)

Major General Thomas Green, CSA (1814-1864)

Major General Thomas Green, CSA (1814-1864)

Born in southwestern Virginia, Tom Green moved at a young age with his family to middle Tennessee. Like many Southerners of his generation, Green traveled to Texas to participate in its revolution against Mexico in 1835-1836. He participated as a private of artillery in the decisive battle of San Jacinto on 21 April 1836. Green relocated permanently to Texas in 1837, settling in LaGrange. He briefly entered elected politics in 1839, but soon showed a greater talent and inclination for his appointments as engrossing clerk for the Texas House of Representatives and secretary of the Senate. His longest held position was that of clerk of the Texas Supreme Court, a position he assumed in 1841. By all accounts, the well-read and intellectual Green was extremely popular in all these positions.

In the frequent recesses during court and legislative sessions, Green participated in many of the campaigns of the Republic of Texas. As a volunteer ranger, he rode on two successful expeditions against the Penateka Comanches. As a volunteer officer in the army of the republic, he raised mounted companies and served as a staff officer in campaigns against Mexican incursions. During the Mexican-American War, Green served as a company commander in Colonel John Coffee Hays’s 1st Texas Mounted Rifles, where he served with distinction in the Monterrey campaign.

When that regiment disbanded in October 1846, Green returned to Texas and domestic pursuits. He married Mary Chalmers, the oldest daughter of a prominent Austin editor, in January 1847. Within months of the wedding, both of her parents died, prompting the couple to adopt her six siblings and raise them as well as six children of their own. Green, now responsible for a sizable family, put his energy into his twenty-year career as clerk of the Supreme Court, where he became a protege of Justice John Hemphill, an outspoken advocate of states’ rights.

When secession occurred in 1861, Green sprang to the call. He received appointment as a general in charge of a militia district, but left that post to assume command of the 5th Texas Mounted Volunteers in late summer 1861. Green’s first campaign was with Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley in New Mexico. Green earned the victory at the battle of Val Verde on 21 February 1861, but showed mediocre leadership during the rest of the campaign, and rumors began circulating that he was a boon companion of the notoriously drunk General Sibley. At the battle of Peralta on 15 April, Federal troops surprised Green’s command in the midst of a fandango at a captured estate, shaking the Texans badly. By the time the 5th Texas returned to Texas at the end of the disastrous campaign, Green’s reputation had clearly suffered.

Passed over for promotion, and eager to salvage his good name, Green fought the rest of the war with a vengeance. At the battle of Galveston on 1 January 1863, he made sure that his command, now designated the 5th Texas Cavalry, played a prominent role, and he received many of the laurels for the stunning victory. After reinforcing General Richard Taylor’s army in Southwestern Louisiana in March 1863, Green earned a reputation as a tenacious fighter. In the Bayou Teche campaign in April, Green’s rear-guard tactics led Taylor to recommend him for promotion, which the Confederate Congress confirmed.

Placed at the head of the disgraced Sibley’s old brigade, Green led the 4th, 5th and 7th Texas cavalries in a number of ferocious battles in the summer of 1863. Most of the time, Green was the de facto commander of a small cavalry division that included the brigade of his brother-in-law Colonel James P. Major. On 23 June, as Taylor attempted to relieve pressure on the besieged garrison of Port Hudson across the Mississippi, Green proved instrumental in the capture of Federal general Nathaniel P. Banks’s depot at Brashear City, Louisiana. The Texan led a poorly coordinated assault on Fort Butler at Donaldsonville on 28 June, resulting in heavy casualties among his command. Afterward, Confederates bypassed the fort, and field artillery and sharpshooters harassed shipping on the Mississippi, temporarily interrupting Banks’s communications with New Orleans. After the fall of Port Hudson on 8 July, U.S. troops moved to contain Taylor. Green soundly drubbed them at the battle of Cox’s Plantation on 13 July, allowing Taylor to abandon the Bayou Lafourche country in good order with his important captures intact.

Green earned two more battlefield successes in 1863 and emerged as Taylor’s most reliable – and aggressive – subordinate. On 12 September, he led his brigade, Major’s brigade, and a brigade of Texas infantry under Colonel Joseph Spaight in a well-executed ambush of a Union brigade-sized outpost at Sterling’s Plantation on Bayou Fordoche. When General Banks launched an offensive toward Alexandria that same month, Green’s troops harassed the advance. When the Federals withdrew in November, Tom Green’s Texans jumped a Union brigade at Bayou Borbeau on 2 November, leading to its destruction. After a year of active campaigning, Taylor ordered Green’s command to protect the Texas coast for the winter.

Early in 1864, Green received greater responsibilities while leading his men in the decisive campaign for Louisiana. Confederate authorities promoted Green to major general, and Taylor appointed him to lead all of the cavalry in his department. In March, General Banks launched his land and riverine Red River campaign toward Shreveport, Louisiana, prompting Taylor’s superior, Lieutenant General Edmund Kirby  Smith, to summon all available troops to the state to aid it in the defense. Green, his old command, and an additional small division of Texas cavalry responded. The Confederates under Green skirmished actively with Union troops before joining Taylor’s main body of troops just south of Mansfield. On 8 April, the Confederates turned on Banks’s army and routed it. The following day, at Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, Confederate assaults against the battered Federal troops achieved nothing, but did convince Banks to retreat to safer ground. Green immediately ordered a pursuit by his mounted troops.

Green led a large part of his mounted command to the banks of the Red River, hoping to capture Union transports passing back down toward Natchitoches. While Green was coordinating an attack on the Union navy at Blair’s Landing on 12 April 1864, sailors aboard the U.S.S. Osage fired a round of grapeshot at a conspicuous Confederate officer within easy range of their guns. One of the projectiles hit Green in the upper forehead, killing him instantly.

- Donald S. Frazier

[Source: Heidler, David S. and Jeanne T. Heidler. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social and Military History. W.W. Norton & Co. 2002. pp. 877-878]

He is buried at Oakwood Cemetery in Austin, Texas, per FindAGrave.

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